Every human is made up of tiny structures known as cells. Those cells together form tissues for the animal known as human. Collection of animal tissues come up with organs. Finally, your human body is designed with various systems made up of above stuffs. If you say me to name a few, I’d appreciatively mention digestive system, nervous system, blood circulatory system and one more, that’s the human immunity system.
Yep! almost all the animals have their own functional immunity systems as well as human beings. I’m going to explain you more about the immune system of humans in the next couple of minutes.
I have explained few types of microorganisms such as parasitic, saprophytic in the natural classification of microorganisms. These are harmful organisms that you cannot see with naked eye. They can live on your body and consume your resources.
These days I’m watching a TV show called ‘The Strain‘ and it is all about such an animal(not a microorganism) that can enter and live on human body and drinks its blood.
Anyway, this means other harmful organisms could enter your body and spread various diseases inside it. They can harm your health status and more!
Immunity Secures It All …
You’re using a computer or some other device to read this piece of science. All people know computers can be hacked unless it has some sort of protection. Usually main thing that secures your computer from a hacker is the firewall. What if you don’t have any protection against your computer?
A hacker will ruin your world, delete your files required to run the systems properly, erase your golden data, consume it to do some slavery act and so on.
Now put the above phenomenon to human body. Yeah! Immunity is what protects your body and its systems from hackers known as microorganisms. It is the firewall of your computer – Body – If your immunity is weak, it opens up doors to harmful organisms to play with you.
Okay after all, the immunity is the ability of your body to prevent the entering and settling of microorganisms inside your body. The human body has the ability of fighting with microorganisms and it really can weaken the strength of them. Many times weaker microorganisms are killed by your immunity in the entering process.
This is exactly the same reason why your fever is gone naturally, and it is the same reason why you don’t get some of the diseases. However, natural human immunity system isn’t the all-in-one fighter for every disease and microorganisms.
Therefore you can find 2 types of immunity as,
- Adaptive Immunity System also known as Specific Immunity.
- Innate Immunity System also known as Non-specific Immunity.
Adaptive Immunity System
Immunity system is able to produce antibodies against various molecules of the microorganisms due to the availability of a protein in your body. These antibodies are specific for certain diseases such as Measles, Chicken pox and Mumps.
Adaptive immunity may last till death or for some time. It causes by 2 methods,
- Immunity which causes after contracting a disease once.
- Immunity which causes by artificial methods. – Triple and Rubella injections given to infants and children is an example.
During the pregnancy period infant gets all his energy, nutrition from the mother. This list include some antibodies too. Breast milk of a mother contains Colostrum which is a substance providing antibodies to an infant. This process also belongs to adaptive immunity system of humans.
Innate Immunity System
Innate immunity is the natural method of protection to your body. There are several ways an innate immunity may occurs such as,
- Antibiotics in the blood and body fluids.
- Inflammation responses by the body.
- Membranes of the body such as skin and mucous.
External layer of your skin is made up of animal tissues known as epithelial tissue. It prevents microorganisms from entering to your body and skin. If you’re an excessive sweater like me, no doubt that you want to kill the whole sweating process. But do you know sweat helps to stop the growth of disease causing organisms? Yep that crazy liquid does …
In addition to the sweat, anti microorganic substances and secretions of the sebaceous gland prevents the growth of microorganisms.
You can find the mucous membrane in your respiratory system. This is another way of innate immunity and it generates mucous. The bad guys – Microorganisms – trying to enter your body through respiratory system gets trapped in the mucous. Later they are sent to the stomach with mucous.
Okay, quick question. Which acid secretes by your digestive system to digest all that food you eat?
It is Hydrochloric Acid.
Above acid destroys the mucous with microorganisms. As a result you are being saved from some diseases.
The lysosome found in tears and sputum can break the cell walls of the bacteria making things easier to kill. Then iron is a substance which promotes the growth of bacteria and some chemicals after reacting with iron could reverse their growth – Reducing the growth.
There are 2 types of blood cells in your body as red blood cells and white blood cells. These white cells have a job of attacking the disease causing microorganisms. Human bile, tears and breast milk contains a chemical known as Lactoferrin.
In the process where microorganisms enter your blood stream, white blood cells in the blood and the lymphatic system destroys them by Phagocytosis.
Blood Clotting or Coagulation Process
Blood coagulation is also related to the innate immunity system to protect you. Fibrinogen, Calcium ions, Thromboplastine and Prothombine which is an anti enzyme are few substances take part in the blood coagulation process. They can be found in the blood plasma.
Gelatinous fiber is created by the chemicals and when the blood cells flow through this fiber they coagulates.
There is another thing which is required for coagulation. I have mentioned that one thing before too. It is platelets which is another substance contained in the blood. In addition it is found that Vitamin K also supports the coagulation process.
Microorganisms can enter to your body through fresh wounds, bruises etc. However due to the quick blood clotting, they can’t do that easily.
Human Blood Groups
Karl Landsteiner is an Austrian doctor who founded the 4 blood groups initially in 1901. These 4 blood groups given the names as A, B, AB and O. Difference of the 4 blood groups is the special proteins and antibody generators.
Later after few unsuccessful blood transfusions Karl found out something new. There were special proteins available in the red blood cells. It was named as Rh factor. Not all people have Rh factor in their blood and those who have it named as Rh+ with their blood group.
So the current 8 groups of blood includes A, A+, B, B+, AB, AB+, O and O+. Do you know which group you’re belonging to? It is a wise thing to know it always.
There is no doubt that you have heard about all those blood banks and blood donation campaigns around the city. These are emerged due to the founding of blood transfusion. Simply it means transferring blood to a person who has a deficiency in blood constituents occurred with diseases caused by microorganisms.
This is a artificial process. All the donated blood are centrifuged and separated into Leukocytes, Erythrocytes, Plasma and Platelets. Separated components are stored in the right temperature till their usage arrive.
There are 2 rules in the blood transfusion process. First is the compatibility of blood group of the recipient and the donor. Blood of the donor must be free from diseases. There are few more things to find the suitability of a person to donate blood.
- The person should be free from HIV AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases
- Should have a weight over 50kg.
- Should be in the range of 18 – 60 years of age.
- Shouldn’t be subjected to following diseases at least once – Typhoid, Chicken Pox, Measles, Hepatitis.
Okay, that’s how your body fights the bad guys out there. Did you knew about the immunity system do this much of work? What do you think about it? I’d like to hear your ideas through social profiles.
Share once to help at least 10 people who love to learn about this system of human beings. 🙂
Excellent, Keep it up